Dermatology Glossary of Terms

This dermatology glossary contains some of the most commonly used key terms and phrases in dermatology and will help you to understand the terms you may come across on this website and during your visit with dermatologist. This material should not be used for self-diagnoses and are provided for information purposes only.

Abscess: A pus-containing skin infection that occurs from bacteria or parasites.

Acanthosis: Involves thickening of the skin, which results in papules and plaques forming. Commonly treated by a dermatologist.

Acanthosis Nigricans: A breakout of hyperpigmented plaques and warty papules in the axillae, groin, neck, and/or anogenital region.

Acne: A skin condition characterized by blackheads, pimple outbreaks, cysts, infected abscesses, and scarring that is most commonly found on the face, back, shoulders and chest.

Acne Vulgaris: A skin condition resulting in whiteheads, blackheads, and inflamed red pimples. Consult a dermatologist for this type of skin care treatment.

Actinic Purpura: A skin condition that results from chronic sun-exposure and increasing age: a dermatologist can perform certain treatments to help this type of dermatological condition.

Acrochordon: A small skin tag that can be located almost anywhere on the body or face. Skin tags are a type of condition that can easily be removed by your chosen dermatologist or surgical doctor.

Albinism: A skin defect that results in little or no color pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes.

Allergens: Allergens are materials (such as pollen, pet dander, foods, or dust) that cause allergic responses. Allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever, which flare quickly, are easy to tie to allergens. Allergic symptoms, such as itching and hives, appear soon after exposure to airborne allergens and last only briefly. But the slower, continuing, chronic eczema of AD may be difficult to tie to specific allergens. Food allergies can trigger flares, especially for children with moderate to severe AD. Pollens, dust mites, and pets can seldom be shown to trigger eczema in young children. Of the available tests for allergy, scratch tests and RAST tests are only brief reactions and do not diagnose allergen-triggered eczema. Patch tests, by contrast, can diagnose eczema response in some cases such as allergies to skin care products.

Alopecia: A general term to describe hair loss or baldness. Consult your dermatologist for this type of treatment.

American Academy of Dermatology (AAD): is the largest organization of dermatologists in the world. It was founded in 1938 and represents 18,000 dermatologists in the United States, Canada, and around the world. The Academy sponsors a number of educational events for its membership throughout the year. Educational materials are available for dermatologists, physicians, medical students, allied health professionals, schools, and the public.

American Association of Pediatrics (AAP); founded in 1930 by 35 pediatricians to address pediatric healthcare standards, it has 64,000 members. The mission of the AAP is to attain optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. To accomplish this mission, the AAP shall support the professional needs of its members.

Angioedema: Swelling beneath the skin rather than on the surface of the skin. This type of dermatological condition happens suddenly and can persist for hours or throughout a few days.

Antihistamines: Often prescribed to reduce itching, these medicines may cause drowsiness but seem to help some children, largely due to their sleep-inducing side effects. Current medical research is still cautious to claim this is an effective therapy on its own because it doesn’t treat the skin, it only treats the itchiness. Furthermore, antihistamines cause drowsiness and leave you sluggish all day.

Antibiotics: Oral or topical antibiotics reduce the surface bacterial infections that may accompany flares of AD. To address the irritating bacteria, doctors may prescribe antibiotics in serious cases. This is not a long-term option — in fact, it can make matters worse. Antibiotics kill our GOOD and BAD bacteria, which weakens our immune system, leaving you nearly defenseless against another eczema outbreak.

Atopic Dermatitis: Also called Eczema, is a chronic skin condition that causes scaly and itchy rashes.

Atrophy: Thinning of the skin due to a reduction of underlying tissue.

Basal Cell Carcinoma: The most common, slow-growing form of skin cancer where small bumps form on the skin and may bleed. Basal Cell Carcinoma is derived from cells in the basal cell layer of the lower epidermis. A dermatologist will have treatment options for this type of skin disease.

Bleach bath therapy: If your child has eczema and gets frequent skin infections, a dermatologist may recommend bleach bath therapy.

Biopsy: A surgical procedure performed by a dermatologist or surgeon that involves the removal and examination of tissues or cells from the body.

Blemish: Also called Acne, a skin condition characterized by blackheads, pimple outbreaks, cysts, infected abscesses, and scarring that is commonly found on the face, back, shoulders and chest.

Bulla: A skin blister that is raised more than .5 cm that contains serous fluid above the dermis. Bulla is a condition that can be treated by a certified dermatologist or skin care professional.

Bullous Pemphigoid: A skin disorder producing large blisters. Bullous Pemphigoid often occurs in the elderly and is often chronic.

Café au lait Spot: Pigmented birthmarks that are uniform light to dark brown colors and are usually oval in shape. Birthmarks are present at birth.

Carbuncle/Furuncle: An acute, round, firm, and tender boil on the skin.

Cavernous Hemangioma: A raised, red to purple sore on the skin due to a buildup of blood vessels that can be treated by a dermatologist or skin care professional.

Cellulitis: A common deep skin infection caused by bacteria resulting in localized area inflammation.

Cherry Angioma: Small red to purple papules on the skin containing the abnormal proliferation of blood vessels.

Chitosan: Is a natural ocean biopolymer derived from crab shells and is eco-friendly since Chitin is the second most abundant natural biopolymer after cellulose, but only about 3% is used per annum. Chitosan is hypoallergenic (it’s a polysaccharide which will not aggravate people’s fish allergies), it is nontoxic and biodegradable in the human body (Chitosan is allowed for dietary use in the US, EU, Japan, and Korea), and clinically proven to be naturally anti-bacterial. It prevents or alleviates infections, stores moistures, binds proteins, albumin and fats, is hemostatic and fully biodegradable. FDA approved, Chitosan infused bandages are now standard issue for active duty U.S. armed forces and are also being used by medical professionals in hospitals around the country to prevent infection and control bleeding.

Our unique TENCEL® fiber is permanently embedded with Chitosan. The benefits from adding Chitosan to the fiber are less dehydration of the skin, resulting in less transepidermal water loss (TEWL) which means a better barrier function of the skin, and less reduction of skin elasticity. Furthermore, a medical study (University Hamburg) showed significant wound healing properties based on the properties of Chitosan.

Closed Comedo: Also called a Whitehead, a type of acne with a white or yellowish head on the skin.

Cold Sore: A recurrent lesion around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus.

Contact Dermatitis: A rash or inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with various substances.

Corticosteroids: Often called topical (“applied to the skin”) steroids, these are cortisone-like medications used in creams or ointments that your doctor may prescribe (e.g. hydrocortisone, mometasone, desonide, triamcinolone). They are not the same as the anabolic steroids some athletes misuse. Corticosteroids are very helpful. Often, they are the only treatment that can calm the inflamed skin. The use of steroid ointments and creams requires good judgment and careful supervision. They come in many strengths from mild to super-potent. Hydrocortisone, a very mild steroid, is quite safe. The more potent ones can cause thinned skin, stretch marks and even growth retardation or suppression of the adrenal gland if used too many days in the same areas of the body. Parents should monitor the child’s use. Ask the doctor about potency and side effects of prescribed corticosteroid medicines and follow the product insert instructions carefully.

Creeping Eruption: A skin infection that causes severe itching. Creeping Eruption can be treated by a dermatologist or skin care professional.

Crusting: Also known as a scab, it is dried blood, pus, or other fluids on the surface of the skin.

Cryosurgery: A dermatological procedure, performed by a dermatologist or skin care professional, done by freezing the lesion with liquid nitrogen.

Cyst: A deep lesion filled with pus or fluids.

Cystic Acne: A severe form of acne forming papule.

Dermabrasion: A dermatological procedure, performed by a dermatologist to remove acne scars or the like by abrading.

Dermatitis: A skin condition that is inflammation of the skin from a variety of skin conditions.

Dermatofibroma: A small, non-cancerous red or brown bump in the skin normally found on the legs.

Dermatographism: A skin condition where raised, reddish marks or hives appear on the skin due to light scratching. Dermatographism is usually caused by physical trauma or rubbing.

Dermis: The middle layer of the skin consisting of the blood vessels, hair follicles, and sweat glands.

Dermatological Nurses Association (DNA): is a professional nursing organization comprised of a diverse group of individuals committed to quality care through sharing knowledge and expertise. The core purpose of the DNA is to promote excellence in dermatologic care.

Desquamation: The peeling or shedding of the epidermis.

Dimple sign: A central depression or dimple educed within a lesion when it is squeezed.

Discoid/Discoid Lupus: A descriptive term used for round papules, plaques, or a patch resembling a disk-like shape.

Dry skin: The skin’s main function is to provide a barrier against dirt, germs, and chemicals from the outside. We don’t notice this barrier unless it gets dry, and then it’s scaly, rough and tight. Dry skin is brittle ‚— moist skin is soft and flexible. People with AD have a defect in their skin so it won’t stay moist. It is especially bad in winter when the heat is on in the house and the humidity drops. Other things that dry the skin are too much bathing without proper moisturizing. The challenge: Prevent skin dryness.

Ecchymosis: A non-blanching skin discoloration due to the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels.

Eczema: Also called Atopic Dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that results in itching, scaling, and thickening of the skin, often associated with pruritus or burning.

Ephelis: Also called Freckle, are clusters of brownish spots on the skin caused by deposition of pigment, and typically appear on sun-exposed areas.

Epidermis: The outermost layer of the skin that is exposed to the environment.

Erosion: Loss of the epidermis due to friction or pressure.

Erysipelas: An acute streptococcus bacterial infection that results in inflammation.

Erythema Multiforme: Abnormal redness of the skin usually caused by inflammation.

Erythema Nodosum: A skin infection where red bumps appear on the shins.

Erythrasma: A skin infection where irregular pink patches are localized or generalized and turn to brown scales.

Erythroderma: An extensive reddening of the skin often due to exfoliation.

Exanthem: An extensive rash.

Excoriation: When the skin is covered by scabs due to scratching.

Folliculitis: Inflammation of hair follicles from infection.

Granuloma Annulare: A chronic skin disease where raised, red bumps appear in a circle or ring with a normal or sunken center.

Heat and sweating: Most people with atopic dermatitis notice that when they get hot, they itch. They have a type of prickly heat that doesn’t occur just in humid summertime but anytime they sweat. It can happen from exercise, from too many warm bedclothes, or rapid changes in temperature from cold to warm.

Herpes Simplex: A recurrent, self-limited viral disease that causes the eruption of fluid-containing vesicles.

Herpes Zoster: Also known as Shingles, is a painful, viral infection of the nerves that causes a painful rash with small blisters.

Hives: An allergic reaction from food or medication where red, itchy, and swollen spots appear on the skin. Hives are commonly known as Urticaria.

Hyperpigmentation: Excess, darker than normal, pigmentation.

Hypopigmentation: Diminished, paler than normal, pigmentation.

Itching: Atopic dermatitis is a very itchy rash. Much of the skin damage comes from scratching and rubbing that the child cannot control.

Ichthyosis: A heredity skin disease where epidermis flakes off in large scales or plates.

Infections: Bacterial “staph” infections are the most common, especially on arms and legs. Such infections suspected if areas are weeping or crusted or if small “pus-bumps” is seen. Common virus infection of children, molluscum contagiosum, tends to be more severe in children with AD. Molluscum infections look like small bumps, often with a central white core. Herpes infections (such as fever blisters or cold sores) and fungus (ringworm or athlete’s foot) can also trigger AD. If some lesions look different ask your doctor. If they turn out to be infected, they can be treated with antibiotics or other, effective medications. These are generally benign, superficial infections for AD patients and they do not seem to be especially contagious for other people. The challenge: Recognize and treat pustules or crusted lesions in consultation with a physician.

Immunocompromised: A condition where the immune system has been impaired by disease and decreases a person’s ability to fight infections.

Impetigo: A bacterial skin infection where microscopic pus-filled blisters appear.

Induration: The hardening of normally soft skin due to inflammation, cellular infiltration, or an accumulation of blood.

Inflammation: The reaction of the skin that causes redness, swelling, heat, and pain due to injury, infection, or allergic reaction.

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Keratinocytes: Also called Squamous Cells, is the main cell found in the epidermis.

Keratoacanthomas: A skin growth that is round and fleshed-colored that contain a pasty material.

Keratosis Pilaris: A genetic skin condition where rough bumps appear on the back, upper arms and thighs.

Lentigo: A freckle or other pigmented spot found on the surface of the skin.

Lichen: This refers to clinical lesions that various skin diseases caused by the eruption of flat papules.

Lichenification: Diffuse, thickening of the skin due to scratching and rubbing.

Lipomas: A benign tumor under the skin composed of fatty tissue

Liver Spots: Discoloration of the skin due to aging and sun exposure.

Lymphangioma: A benign proliferation of lymphatic vessels causing a raised, yellow-tan or red mark on the skin.

Macular Stains: Also called Angel’s Kisses or Stork Bites, are faint, red marks on the skin present at birth.

Macule: A circumscribed flat, discolored spot on the skin.

Malignant Melanoma: A rare but sometimes fatal type of skin cancer that starts off as a mole and turns cancerous. Skin cancers should be treated by dermatologists when immediate signs appear.

Melanocytes: An epidermis cell that produces melanin.

Melasma: A light to dark brown, patchy pigmentation on the face, resulting from sun exposure. Is associated with estrogens and common in pregnant women.

Moisturizers: Ointments such as petroleum jelly are best unless they’re too thick and cause discomfort. Creams may be fine for moderately dry skin or in hot, humid weather. Apply them to wet skin, immediately after bathing. Lotions are not rich enough and often have a net drying effect on AD skin.

Moles: A small, dark, raised congenital spot on the skin.

Mongolian spots: Bluish-black congenital skin marks found at birth, on the lower back and buttock and usually goes away after three to five years after birth.

National Eczema Association (NEA) – Is a not-for-profit association dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for individuals with eczema through research, support, and education.

NEA Seal of Acceptance™ Product Directory: Provides suggestions for the appropriate products for the treatment of eczema including moisturizes, apparel and other products.

Neurodermatitis: Also known as lichen simplex chronicus, is a condition that appears on the skin and is similar to atopic dermatitis. It is a skin condition that begins with an itch. The itch can develop anywhere on the surface of the body. Most commonly, an itchy patch develops on an arm, leg, or the back of the neck.

Nevi Flammeus: A birthmark consisting of malformed, dilated blood vessels in the skin that leave pink, red, or purple marks on the outer layer of the skin.

Nodule: Also called Papule, is a raised area of the skin that does not contain any fluids.

OEKO-TEX® Standard 100, product class 1 for baby articles: is an independent test and certification system for textile raw, intermediate, and end products at all stages of processing by TESTEX AG (the Swiss Textile Testing Institute). 

Open Comedo: Also called a Blackhead, is a type of acne with a blackish bump on the skin.

Paronychia: A pus-forming, fungal skin infection that causes inflammation around the fingernail and toenail. This commonly results in separation of the skin from the proximal nail.

Papule: A raised area of the skin that does not contain any fluids.

Patch: A circumscribed flat, discolored spot on the skin.

Pimple: An inflamed lesion on the skin that resemble a pink bump. Pimple’s are common in teenagers and young adults, however, do occur in people of all ages.

Pityriasis Rosea: A common skin condition resembling patches of scaly, pink, and inflamed skin usually found on the torso.

Placebo Effect: The effects of atopic dermatitis on the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families cannot be underestimated. Nearly 50% of children with AD report a severely negative effect of the disease on QoL. Factors that contribute to poor QoL in AD are fatigue and sleep deprivation (which directly correlate with itch and severity of AD), activity restriction, and depression. (American Academy of Pediatrics).

Soothems™ has developed along with TEWLTect™ therapeutic smart fabric what clinically would be termed a placebo effect for its infant and children’s product range. A patient’s quality of life (QoL) and that of their families is integral in the treatment of any ailment. People suffering from Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema and Psoriasis deal with multiple levels of stress and discomfort from physical, environmental and emotional conditions. Incessant itching can lead to skin infections and sleep deprivation due to these common skin diseases.

In a December, 2016 article in National Geographic Magazine titled “Mind Over Matter” numerous studies, experiments and clinical trials related to understanding the pathways of pain and the placebo effect are cited from Harvard; Stanford; Oxford University; University of California, SF; University of Maryland; University of Turin among others, that repeatedly revealed that for some, a strong belief that a treatment will heal an ailment can prompt the brain to tap into its own internal pharmacy, flooding the nervous system with medicating neurotransmitters and hormones that intercept and inhibit pain. The clinical term to describe this phenomenon is "the placebo effect".

Plaque: A small, elevated, solid lesion with a disk-shaped formation. Usually consists of a flat top.

Pore: A tiny opening on the surface of the skin.

Port-Wine Stains: Also called Nevi Flammeus, is a birthmark consisting of malformed, dilated blood vessels in the skin leaving pink, red, or purple marks on the skin.

Prickly Heat: A skin condition that resembles a rash, and is caused by sweat that is trapped under the skin.

Psoriasis: A chronic skin condition that causes rapid skin growth which results in redness, irritation, and scaly patches. Chronic plaque psoriasis is also a very common disease; affects approximately 2% of people around the world. Things that can cause the skin affected with psoriasis to get worse include infections, stress, and changes in weather that dry the skin. Treatment options include topical steroid creams, topical vitamin D derivatives, other medications, injections of biologic agents, and exposure to ultraviolet light.

Pus: A yellow or white fluid formed in infected tissue.

Pustule: Also called Pimple, is an inflamed lesion on the skin that resembles a pink bump.

Pruritus: Severe itching of the skin.

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Rash: A skin infection that causes itching and blistering.

Ringworm: A fungal skin infection with the formation of red, blistery, ring-shaped patches. Ringworm is very contagious and spreads easily through touch. Ringworm should be treated at first sign of appearance to help avoid spreading.

Rosacea: A skin condition that causes inflammation all over the face, and is treated by a dermatologist.

Salicylic Acid: A keratolytic drug used by dermatologists, in dermatological procedures to remove the outer layer of the skin.

Sarcoidosis: A disease that causes inflammation in the lymph nodes and other organs.

Scab: Also called Crust, is dried blood, pus, or other fluids on the surface (outermost layer) of the skin.

Scabies: A contagious skin infection caused by mites that result in intense itching.

Scales: Dry skin that flakes due to dead skin cells.

Scar: A fibrous tissue on the skin due to an injury, skin disease, rash, or acne. Scars are common conditions dermatologists and facial surgeons treat.

Scratch-itch cycle: Scratching results in the brain's release of serotonin, intensifying the itch sensation. Scientists have long known that scratching creates mild pain in the skin, which can temporarily interfere with the itch.

Sebaceous Glands: Microscopic glands in the skin that secrete oil to the surface of the skin.

Seborrheic Keratosis: Non-cancerous, wart-like spots on the skin that are commonly flesh-colored, brown, or black. Dermatologists often treat this type of skin condition.

Shingles: Also called Herpes Zoster, is a viral infection of the nerve that causes a painful rash with small blisters. Shingles should be treated when the first sign of the condition appears.

Skin Cancer: The uncontrolled growth of the cancerous tumor on the skin that can spread to other tissues and organs. Skin cancer is a condition that dermatologists specialize in.

Skin Tags: Small, non-cancerous, flesh-colored skin flaps that appear on the neck, armpits, or groin. Skin tags can be removed in a simple procedure performed by a dermatologist or skin care professional.

Soothems: Is a product line of garments that have been developed as a therapeutic treatment to help people with particularly sensitive skin, such as those suffering from Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema, Psoriasis and Neurodermatitis, Skin Allergies and Xerosis (dry skin). SOOTHEMS are made from a proprietary SkinSmart fabric called TEWLTect, a blend of high performance sustainable cellulosic polymer fibers enhanced with Chitosan and Zinc Oxide. The curative properties of TEWLTect smart fabric provide a positive, soothing effect when the skin naturally releases moisture; there is an active exchange between human skin and the unique properties of TENCEL with Chitosan lyocell fibers, TANBOOCEL® viscose made from bamboo pulp fibers and the zinc oxide.

Spider Angioma: An abnormal collection of blood vessels near the skin’s surface causing a bright red mark with a distinct dark spot.

Spider Veins: Also called Telangiectasia, is dilated blood vessels that cause dark red blotches on the surface of the skin. Spider veins are commonly found in people older than the age of 55.

Squamous Cells: Also called Keratinocytes, are the main cells found in the epidermis.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Result from skin cancer and become an open sore.

Stratum Corneum: the outer layer of skin cells.

Stress: Emotional stress comes from many situations. People with AD often react to stress by having red flushing and itching. Special problems for children with AD include frustration, anger or fear. And, of course, AD itself, and its treatments are a source of stress! The challenge: Recognize stress and reduce it.

Stretch Marks: Also called Striae, is scaring caused by the stretching or tearing of the skin.n, is also called Striae

Striae: Scaring caused by the stretching or tearing of the skin.

Subcutaneous Layer: Also called Subcutis. The deepest layer of the skin that lies below the dermis.

Subcutis: Also called Subcutaneous Layer. The deepest layer of the skin that lies below the dermis.

Tar Preparations: Tar creams or bath emulsions can be helpful for mild inflammation.

Tamboocell®: Is a special viscose fiber made from bamboo pulp that has been awarded the OEKO-TEX® Standard 100, product class 1 for baby articles.

Telangiectasia: Also called Spider Veins, are dilated blood vessels that cause dark red blotches on the skin.

TENCEL™: a manmade, cellulose-based (wood pulp), natural polymer fiber commonly referred to as lyocell. The lyocell fiber from Lenzing, AG and are clinically proven to be tactilely more comfortable than cotton, has inherent thermo-regulating, moisture managing, bacterial controlling properties that help protect irritated skin. The fiber is produced via an advanced "closed loop" solvent spinning process, with minimal impact on the environment and economical use of energy and water. The European Union awarded this process the Environmental Award 2000 in the category "technology for sustainable developments." TENCEL™  with Chitosan fiber is eco-friendly since products made from cellulose can be recycled and TENCEL™ with Chitosan is biodegradable because it is a cellulosic fiber. TENCEL™ with Chitosan has been awarded the OEKO-TEX® Standard 100, product class 1 for baby articles.

Thermal-chromatic ink: Pigment-based, formaldehyde-free inks which dynamically react to the body and air temperature to disappear and reappear. The thermal-chromic ink has been certified as safe by Oeko-Tex Standard 100® for contact with infant skin.

Thermoregulating fabric: TEWLTect is considered a thermoregulating fabric. TEWLTect smart fibers: TENCEL™ with Chitosan and TANBOOCEL have hollow structures and are inherently thermo-regulating and boast clinically proven advantages for breathability and coolness compared to other fibers including cotton, polyester, nylon, and silk. Breathability (air flow) increases the speed of healing. Heat can aggravate eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis and the wicking properties of TEWLTect fibers trap and release moisture providing a cool feeling that increases a pleasant sensation on the skin and can significantly reduce itching for individuals with skin problems. According to authoritative testing figures, apparel made from a lyocell and viscose made from bamboo fibers are typically 1- 2o C degrees lower (1.8 - 3.6oF) than normal apparel in hot, humid summer weather.

Tinea versicolor: A chronic non-inflammatory fungal infection where white or light brown patches appear on the skin that can be treated by a dermatologist.

Topical Calcineurin Inhibitors (TCIs): This family of topical medications has been available for the past 12 years. TCIs work to inhibit the skin’s inflammatory response (which is what causes the redness and also contributes to itching). At this time there are two FDA-approved non-steroid drugs: Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus. TCIs are not steroids and do not cause thinning of the skin but they can suppress the immune system in the skin so that the use of sun protection for the children receiving this therapy is recommended.

For children less than two years of age these medications are only used off-label and as always, with any medication, they should be used with careful supervision of a physician. Tacrolimus and Pimecrolimus both currently have a “black box” warning, which is a precautionary statement given to the medication by the Food and Drug Administration.

Topical Steroid Creams: Topical steroid use results in diminishing effectiveness, so more and more powerful ones need to be applied to achieve the same results, and once users discontinue topical steroids, eczema can be devastating. This process is known as Topical Steroid Addiction and Withdrawal* (Consult your doctor before taking on any new regimen). Continued use can thin the skin and cause permanent pigment changes, even hormonal changes and hair loss. (Consult your doctor before taking on any new regimen)

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A severe skin disorder caused by a reaction to medicine where the top layer of skin starts blistering and peeling. Dermatologists can treat this type of skin reaction.

Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL): is the water loss from the stratum corneum (outer layer of the epidermis) and one of the major factors responsible for dry, scaly skin and irritant dermatitis. 

Tretinoin: A common, dermatological drug, chemically related to vitamin A, used to treat acne.

TEWLTect® : Is an FDA-registered, class one, exempt status medical device that is an environmentally sustainable blend of natural cellulosic polymer fibers: 60% TENCEL™ with Chitosan a lyocell fiber made from beech wood pulp embedded with Chitosan, a biopolymer, and 35% TANBOOCEL viscose made from bamboo pulp, and 5% Creora® (latex free) spandex that are encapsulated with Zinc Oxide. TEWLTect SkinSmart fabric can be used as an occlusive barrier wet, or dry with or without emollients and topical steroids as prescribed by a medical professional for people suffering from skin diseases such as Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema, Psoriasis and Neurodermatitis, Skin Allergies and Xerosis (dry skin). TENCEL™ with Chitosan, TANBOOCEL, and Creora® raw materials have all individually been awarded the OEKO-TEX® Standard 100, product class 1 for baby articles. TEWLTect smart fabric is a proprietary fabric developed and owned by Soothems, LLC.

Urticaria: Also known as Hives, is an allergic reaction from food or medication where red, itchy, and swollen spots appear on the surface of the skin.

Urushiol: A toxic substance found in resin that causes an allergic skin reaction.

Vitiligo: A skin disorder where smooth, white patches appear in the skin due to the loss of pigment-producing cells. Dermatologists can treat this type of skin disorder.

Wart: A small non-cancerous skin growth caused by a virus that appears on the surface of the skin.

Wet Wrap Therapy: a highly effective treatment (studies have shown a 70% reduction in atopic dermatitis symptoms) Soak in lukewarm bath water for 15-20 minutes. Seal the skin with a moisturizer and cover with wet wraps for a minimum of two hours. This type of treatment should only be administered under the guidance of a health care professional. Wet wrapping also works well for psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and dermatomyositis.

Wet Wrap Instructions: Always seek the advice of a medical professional for the technique, frequency, and length of time for using wet wrap therapy.

Step 1: Soak wraps in warm water.

Step 2: Bathe child in warm (not hot) water, for about 15 – 20 minutes and use a gentle cleanser.

Step 3: Lightly pat the child’s skin dry with a towel.

Step 4: Apply prescribed lotion within 3 minutes.

Step 5: Wring excess water from wrap and immediately dress a child in the damp wrap to seal in moisture.

Step 6: Apply a dry layer of clothing over.

If needed dampen with a gentle spray water bottle.

Whitehead: Also called Closed Comedo, is a type of acne with a white or yellowish head on the skin. Whiteheads often appear in teenagers and young adults but can appear in people of all ages.

Wrinkle: A small crease or fold in the skin surface resulting from aging or frowning.

Xerosis: Excessive and pathological dryness of the skin or mucous membranes. Also known as Xeroderma.

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Zinc Oxide (ZnO):  is an inorganic mineral compound which is incorporated into the TEWLTect fibers through an encapsulation process that can never wear out or wash off. Zinc Oxide contributes to the regeneration of the skin, naturally soothing irritated skin and used to heal wounds. Zinc Oxide is clinically proven to be antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, soothing to the skin and even acting as a protective layer on the skin to lock moisture in to help stop itchiness for people with skin problems.